As an energy-saving measure, natural ventilation has been widely used in civil buildings, and its application prospect and effect in subway engineering are worthy of further study. Taking Shapingba Station of Chongqing Metro Line 1 as the prototype, the natural ventilation scale of the subway station under different working conditions is tested by building a natural ventilation model test platform of the subway station and simulating several typical working conditions in the public area. The test results show that hot pressing is one of the main driving forces of natural ventilation of the subway station, and the height difference between the subway exits has limited influence on it. The natural ventilation path is mainly composed of the subway exit, the station hall layer, and the subway exit, and the scale of natural ventilation flowing through the platform layer is small. Appropriately increasing the number of exits can increase natural ventilation and effectively promote natural ventilation efficiency. According to the test results, the corresponding design and operation suggestions are put forward, and the feasibility basis for making full use of natural wind energy saving in non-air conditioning seasons is put forward.