Assessing the resilience of urban rail transit (URT) networks under emergencies has practical significance in enhancing the URT system’s operation. An URT network performance indicator that considers the URT network’s topology structure and passengers’ travel is proposed herein. The network performance indicator can reflect the quality of the transport service. Then, the URT network’s resilience is measured by considering the URT network’s performance recovery rate as an indicator. Finally, the resilience of the Chengdu subway network under emergencies is analyzed using the proposed models. The result indicates that the performance loss of the URT network is proportional to the duration of emergencies. Compared with non-transfer stations, the failure of transfer stations will lead to a higher URT network performance loss. The URT network’s resilience is inversely proportional to the duration of emergencies, and transfer stations possess higher resilience than non-transfer stations. Finally, resilience enhancement strategies of an URT are proposed under normal and emergency operation conditions, respectively, based on the results.