To optimize long-distance shield tunneling in gravel stratum, the concept of a multi-dimensional gradient layout of advanced cutters is proposed. The multi-dimensional layout ensures the stability of the cutter head during long-distance excavation, and the gradient layout allows alloy blocks of advanced cutters with different heights to overlap in order to realize wear “relay.” In this study, we selected the most suitable design for the project after comparing several cutter heads and cutter layouts. Meanwhile, the wear resistance and impact resistance of the alloy blocks were optimized to avoid impact fatigue failure during long-distance excavation. Based on the engineering of the section from Cigezhuang Station to No. 1 Air Shaft in the Beijing New Airport Metro line, the final cutter head design scheme was obtained through scheme comparison and selection. Furthermore, the cutting tool wear results and tunneling parameters in the tunneling process were analyzed. The data show that long-distance tunneling in a gravel stratum with multi-layer advanced cutters can be divided into two stages: plowing primarily with a high cutter and plowing with both high and low cutters. In the first stage, the wear coefficient of the 155 mm advanced cutters is reduced because of the cutters with a height of 190 mm. In the second stage, normal tunneling can be maintained within a certain distance, which means that the tunneling distance can be extended. Therefore, this can provide a reference for similar engineering constructions in the future.