Energy feedback system and energy storage system are widely used in urban rail DC traction power supply system. Aiming at the design of the power supply system with ground regenerative braking energy utilization devices, this paper firstly builds the power supply calculation models of different ground regenerative braking energy utilization devices. Based on these models, the theory of optimal design and operation of power supply system are proposed, which takes the comprehensive cost of the system within the lifetime of the regenerative braking energy utilization device as the objective function in designing phase, and the system traction energy consumption as objective function in operation phase. Aiming at the energy-saving effect evaluation of the power supply system with ground regenerative braking energy utilization devices, two energy-saving effect evaluation indexes are proposed, which measure energy from traction energy consumption and main transformer energy consumption respectively. The on-line monitoring and control system based on energy-saving effect evaluation is proposed. Finally, some ideas of system designing of power supply system that should be adjusted are listed, which provide some reference for the system design.