超级电容具备功率密度高(2～15 kW/kg)，循环寿命长(10万～100万次)，使用温度范围宽(–40～+70℃)和能量转换效率高(≥90%)等特点，在轨道交通领域可作为储能式有轨电车供电电源、再生制动能量地面储能系统和内燃机辅助启动装置。介绍超级电容储能基本原理，系统说明单体制备工艺以及模组组态方式，总结比较国内外主要厂家的技术特点，中国双电层超级电容已经实现全球单体最大容量12?000 F批量生产，技术处于行业领先水平。针对影响超级电容储能装置使用寿命和安全的因素进行分析，并对轨道交通用超级电容系统未来研发方向进行展望。
Supercapacitors have a high power density (2 kW/kg to 15 kW/kg), long cycle life (100, 000 to 1 million cycles), wide operating temperature range (–40 to +70℃), and high energy conversion efficiency (≥90%). In the field of rail transit, supercapacitors can be used as power supply energy storage systems for trams, wayside energy storage systems for regenerative braking energy, and auxiliary starting devices for internal combustion engines. In this article, the basic principles of supercapacitor energy storage are introduced, and the cell preparation process and module configuration methods are systematically explained. Subsequently, the technical characteristics of major domestic and foreign manufacturers are summarized and compared. Domestic electric double-layer supercapacitors have enabled the mass production of the world’s largest cell with a capacity of 12000 F, using technology that is at the leading level in the industry. Finally, the factors that affect the service life and safety of the supercapacitor energy storage device are analyzed, and suggestions for the direction of future research on the development of the supercapacitor rail transit system are provided.